Evidence of occupation since the pottery Neolithic period has been found and the hill was fortified during the Bronze Age . The hill became the capital of the Kingdom of Ammon sometime after 1200 BC. It was later occupied by various empires that of the Assyrians , Babylonians , the Ptolemies, the Seleucids , Romans , Byzantines and the Umayyads . After the Umayyads came a period of decline and for much of the time until 1878 as the former city became an abandoned pile of ruins only sporadically used by Bedouins and seasonal farmers. Despite this gap, the Citadel of Amman is considered to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited places.